Decision Tree Questions In Genetics And The USMLE
Just a quick thought. It just occurred to me that some of the questions on the USMLE involving pedigree analysis in genetics, are actually typical decision tree questions. The probability that a certain individual, A, has a given disease (eg: Huntington’s disease) purely by random chance is simply the disease’s prevalence in the general population. But what if you considered the following questions:
- How much genetic code do A and B share if they are third cousins?
- If you suddenly knew that B has Huntington’s disease, what is the new probability for A?
- What is the disease probability for A‘s children, given how much genetic code they share with B?
When I’d initially written about decision trees, it did not at all occur to me at the time how this stuff was so familiar to me already!
Apply a little Bayesian strategy to these questions and your mind is suddenly filled with all kinds of probability questions ripe for decision tree analysis:
- If the genetic test I utilize to detect Huntington’s disease has a false-positive rate x and a false-negative rate y, now what is the probability for A?
- If the pre-test likelihood is m and the post-test likelihood is n, now what is the probability for A?
I find it truly amazing how so many geneticists and genetic counselors accomplish such complex calculations using decision trees without even realizing it! Don’t you 🙂 ?
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